Today`s Kalyan Mosque was built at the beginning of the 16th century in the time of the first Shaybanids. Since that time, except for Soviet period it served as the cathedral mosque of Bukhara. The mosque replaced the old Qarakhanid cathedral mosque of the 12th century which was built simultaneously with Kalyan Minaret. This Shaybanid mosque is comparable with Temurid cathedral mosques in Samarkand and Herat. It is behind Bibi-Khanym Mosque in Samarkand by number of structures, but its area which is 130x80 sq. meter surpasses the last one.